Reprints on this page are available online or in PDF format. They can be read and printed using Adobe Reader.

  • Richardson, L.K, S.W. Nordstrom, A. Waananen, R. D. Thoen, A. B. Dykstra, G. Kiefer, D. E. Mullett, E. G. Eichenberger, R. G. Shaw, and S. Wagenius. 2024. Juvenile survival increases with dispersal distance and varies across years: 15 years of evidence in a prairie perennial. Accepted for publication in Ecology.
  • Waananen, A., L. K. Richardson, R. D. Thoen, S. W. Nordstrom, E. G. Eichenberger, G. Kiefer, A. Dykstra, R. G. Shaw, S. Wagenius. 2024 High juvenile mortality overwhelms benefits of mating potential for reproductive fitness. Accepted for publication in American Naturalist.
  • Beck, J., M. McKone, and S. Wagenius. 2024. Masting, fire-stimulated flowering, and the evolutionary ecology of synchronized reproduction. Ecology online early: e4261.
  • Beck, J., A. Waananen, and S. Wagenius. 2023. Habitat fragmentation decouples fire-stimulated flowering from plant reproductive fitness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 120 (39): e2306967120.
  • Pearson, A. E., Z. Zelman, L. A. Hill, M. A. Stevens, E. X. Jackson, M. M. N. Incarnato, R. M. Johnson, S. Wagenius, and J. L. Ison. 2023. Pollinators differ in their contribution to the male fitness of a self-incompatible composite. American Journal of Botany 110(6): e16190.
  • Richardson, L. K., J. Beck, D. J. Eck, R. Shaw, and S. Wagenius. 2023. Fire effects on plant reproductive fitness vary among individuals, reflecting pollination‐dependent mechanisms. American Journal of Botany 110(4): e16160.
  • Reed, W. J., J. L. Ison, A. Waananen, F. H. Shaw, S. Wagenius, R. G. Shaw. 2022. Genetic variation in reproductive timing in a long-lived herbaceous perennial. American Journal of Botany 109(11) 18611874:
  • Richardson, L. K. and S. Wagenius. 2022. Fire influences reproductive outcomes by modifying flowering phenology and mate-availability. New Phytologist 233(5): 2083-2093. online version
  • Nordstrom, S. W., A. B. Dykstra, and S. Wagenius. 2021. Fires slow population declines of a long-lived prairie plant through multiple vital rates. Oecologia 196: 679–691. online version | supplemental info | reproducible analysis
  • Richardson, L.K, M.K. Gallagher, T. E. Hayes, A.S. Gallinat, G. Kiefer, K. Manion, M. Jenkins, G. Diersen, and S. Wagenius. 2020. Competition for pollination and isolation from mates differentially impact four stages of pollination in a model grassland perennial. Journal of Ecology 109: 13561369. online version |supplemental info | reproducible analysis
  • Wagenius, S., J. Beck, and G. Kiefer. 2020. Fire synchronizes flowering and boosts reproduction in a widespread but declining prairie species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117:3000-3005. online version | more info
  • Page, M. L., Ison, J. L., Bewley, A. L., Holsinger, K. M., Kaul, A. D., Koch, K. E., Kolis, K. M., and Wagenius, S. 2019. Pollinator effectiveness in a composite: A specialist bee pollinates more florets but does not move pollen farther than other visitors. American Journal of Botany 106: 1487–1498. PDF
  • Waananen, A., G. Kiefer, J. L. Ison, and S. Wagenius. 2018. Mating opportunity increases with synchrony of flowering among years more than synchrony within years in a nonmasting perennial. The American Naturalist 192: 379-388. PDF | Appendix | online version
  • Ison, J. L., L. J. Prescott, S. W. Nordstrom, A. Waananen, and S. Wagenius. 2018. Pollinator-mediated mechanisms for increased reproductive success in early flowering plants. Oikos 127: 1657-1669. PDF | Supplement | online version
  • Gallagher, M. K. and S. Wagenius. 2016. Seed source impacts germination and early establishment of dominant grasses in prairie restorations. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 251-263. PDF | online version.
  • Muller, K. and S. Wagenius. 2016. Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist ant-tended aphid: a multi-year study of manipulated and naturally-occurring aphid infestation. Ecological Entomology 41: 51-60. PDF | online version
  • Shaw, R. G., S. Wagenius and C. J. Geyer. 2015. The susceptibility of Echinacea angustifolia to a specialist aphid: eco-evolutionary perspective on genotypic variation and demographic consequences. Journal of Ecology 103: 809-818. PDF
  • Kittelson, P., S. Wagenius, R. Nielsen, S. Qazi, M. Howe, G. Kiefer, and R. G. Shaw. 2015. Leaf functional traits, herbivory, and genetic diversity in Echinacea: Implications for fragmented populations. Ecology 96: 1877–1886. PDF
  • Herman, B., S. Packard, C. Pollack, G. Houseal, S. Sinn, J. Fant, A. D. Lewis, S. Wagenius, D. Gustafson, K. Hufford, B. Allison, K. Shaw, S. Haines, and C. Daniels. 2014. Decisions . . . Decisions . . . How to Source Plant Material for Native Plant Restoration Projects. Ecological Restoration 32: 236-238. PDF
  • Ison, J.L., and S. Wagenius. 2014. Both flowering time and spatial isolation affect reproduction in Echinacea angustifolia. Journal of Ecology 102: 920–929. PDF | Supplemental Material | Archived Data
  • Switzer, C. 2014. Using place-based inquiry to inspire and motivate future scientists. Science Scope 37: 50-58. PDF
  • Ison, J.L., S. Wagenius, D. Reitz., M.V. Ashley. 2014. Mating between Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae) individuals increases with their flowering synchrony and spatial proximity. American Journal of Botany 101: 180-189. PDF
  • Ison, J.L., S. Wagenius, D. Reitz., M.V. Ashley. 2013. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae). Applications in Plant Sciences 1: 1300049. PDF
  • Wagenius, S., A. B. Dykstra, C. E. Ridley, and R. G. Shaw. 2012. Seedling recruitment in the long-lived perennial, Echinacea angustifolia: a 10-year experiment. Restoration Ecology 20: 352-359. PDF
  • Ridley CE, Hangelbroek HH, Wagenius S, Stanton-Geddes J, Shaw RG, 2011. The effect of plant inbreeding and stoichiometry on interactions with herbivores in nature: Echinacea angustifolia and its specialist aphid. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24762.
  • Diersen, G. T. 2011. Team Echinacea & construction of a key using online images of fresh prairie plant pollen. The American Biology Teacher 73:35-38. PDF
  • Wagenius, S., and S. P. Lyon. 2010. Reproduction of Echinacea angustifolia in fragmented prairie is pollen-limited but not pollinator-limited. Ecology 91:733-742. Abstract | PDF | Supplemental Material
  • Wagenius, S., H. H. Hangelbroek, C. E. Ridley, and R. G. Shaw. 2010. Biparental inbreeding and interremnant mating in a perennial prairie plant: fitness consequences for progeny in their first eight years. Evolution 64: 761-771. Abstract | PDF
  • Ruth G. Shaw, Charles J. Geyer, Stuart Wagenius, Helen H. Hangelbroek, and Julie R. Etterson. 2008. Unifying life-history analyses for inference of fitness and population growth. American Naturalist 172: E35 – E47. Abstract | PDF | Supplemental Material
  • Geyer, C.J., S. Wagenius, and R.G. Shaw. 2007. Aster models for life history analysis. Biometrika 94: 415-426. PDF | Supplemental Material
  • Wagenius, S., E. Lonsdorf, and C. Neuhauser. 2007. Patch aging and the S-Allee effect: breeding system effects on the demographic response of plants to habitat fragmentation. American Naturalist 169: 383-397. PDF | Supplemental Material
  • Wagenius, S. 2006. Scale dependence of reproductive failure in fragmented Echinacea populations. Ecology 87: 931-941. PDF | Supplemental Material
  • Wagenius, S. 2004. Style persistence, pollen limitation, and seed set in the common prairie plant Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 165: 595-603. PDF
  • Neuhauser, C., D. A. Andow, G. E. Heimpel, G. May, R. G. Shaw, and S. Wagenius. 2003. Community genetics: expanding the synthesis of ecology and genetics. Ecology 84: 545-558. PDF


  • Muller, K. E., G. Hallaman, S. Zufan, J. Gall, and S. Wagenius. Structure, composition, and biotic interactions of ant communities in a fragmented prairie landscape. In revision.
  • Beck, J. and S. Wagenius. Herbivory exacerbates pollen limitation by isolating unconsumed plants from prospective mates. In review.

Techniques and Protocols

Our favorite statistical analysis: aster. The package is available for use with R.

Our standard Echinacea germination_protocol.